Carbon emissions are being reduced by instituting carbon pricing and cap-and-trade by states and nations. Some state programs in the US and Canada are listed below. See 2014 World Bank Publication for programs around the globe.
- California’s emissions trading system was formed in 2013 with a target of 16 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2013 and 2020 and an additional 40 percent by 2030 (see the state's legislation since 2006).
- Northeastern US states formed the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) in 2014, a market-based program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping and reducing CO2 emissions from the power sector, from 82.6 MMt initial CO2 cap declining 2.5 percent each year.
- Washington State's goal since 2008 has been reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and rules to establish and reduce emissions were instituted starting in 2017; however, a second referendum on a carbon tax failed in 2018.
- Among Canadian provinces, British Columbia instituted one of the earlies carbon taxes or fees in 2007, which is currently $ 35/Mt CO2e and slated to increase $ 5/year to $ 50 in 2021. BC's GDP grew 17 % between 2007-2015 and emissions dropped 4.7 %.